Category: Endocrinology

GYNECOMASTIA

Gynecomastia is characterized by the enlargement of one or both male breasts and is due to a non tumoral proliferation of the mammary ducts and of the relative stroma-supporting tissue. It should be distinguished from the simple accumulation of adipose tissue (so-called “lipomastia” or pseudo-gynecomastia) and from the presence of inflammatory or tumoral process. The…

Female Hair Loss and Androgenetic Alopecia

female air loss and androgenic alopecia

Female Hair Loss (Female Pattern Hair Loss, FPHL) may occur at any age and one of the main causes is the Endocrine Androgenetic Alopecia. Female body produces a small amount of androgen agents important for the skeletal and connective tissues but also for cognitive and ideational brain function and ideational, sexuality etc… When androgens increases,…

Hyperprolactinemia, Prolactin and Pituitary Adenomas

hyperprolactinemia and pituitary adenomas

PROLACTIN (PRL) AND ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLE PRL is a  low molecular weight peptide hormone secreted by Hypophysis, a small gland located at the base of the Central Nervous System in a tiny bony enclosure called the Sella Turcica. The HYPOPHYSIS is directly related to the most central areas of the BRAIN that, through chemical mediators, nervous…

The mystery of Melatonin and Pineal Gland

pineal gland

I started my interest in Melatonin (a polypeptide hormone produced by the Pineal Gland) when I was an intern at Ancona University (Italy). At that time I was interested in chronobiology and interactions between environment and neuroendocrine – reproductive system. The Pineal Gland (also called Epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland located behind the third ventricle…

Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy

thyroid

Hyperthyroidism is a clinical syndrome characterized by an increase of thyroid hormones production. As much of the thyroid disease hyperthyroidism occurs more frequently in women with an estimated incidence of 3.9%. Most frequent causes Uncommon causes Graves’ Disease Toxic Multinodular Goiter toxic adenoma (Plummer’s disease) Thyroiditis   assumption of thyroid extracts in diet exogenous administration…

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

thyroid ultrasound

ase because is determined by a self-aggression of the immune system. It means that the production of antibodies and killer cells into the thyroid tissue determines the progressive destruction and the frequent development towards the HYPOTHYROIDISM, that is a reduction of the gland functional activity. Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis have very variable SYMPTOMATOLOGY correlated to…

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: new treatment possibilities

polycystic ovary

For a long time Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) treatment was based on oral contraceptives or ovulation inducer drugs: the firsts were particularly employed because of their power against Hirsutism and Hyperandrogenism symptoms, the latters were chosen if the patient had a mating desire. Contraceptives (the most famous is the DIANE) were often the only way…

Hypertrichosis and Hirsutism

hypertricosis

HYPERTRICHOSIS, Hirsutism and hairiness are an issues for many women very often determined by genetic basis. In other cases, they are derived from hormones, in particular ovarian hormones. In every case, these conditions represent such a real cosmetic issue to affect not only relationships. There are a lot of strategies to fight this blemish, but…

Thyroid Nodules and Multinodular Goiter

thyroid clinical evaluation

Nodular pathology is the most common thyroid disease and affects more frequently women than  men; about 6.4 % of those aged between 30 and 59 years old. In fact, its incidence is probably even higher ( in the autopsy findings rises to nearly 50% of cases ), but not diagnosed by the absence of symptoms.…